Egypt Animosity Towards Ethiopia

edited October 2008 in Personal Issues
Hello, Brothers and Sisters,

I would be very thankful to learn from you, why Egypt and Egyptians remained hostile towards Ethiopia and Ethiopians after all this time?

I invite you cordially to take time and read the following writing open-heartedly and carefully:

Thanks in advance

Unknown by much of the world, monks and nuns of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, have for centuries quietly maintained the only presence by black people in one of Christianity’s holiest sites—the Church of the Holy Sepulcher of Jesus Christ in Jerusalem.

Through the vagaries and vicissitudes of millennial history and landlord changes in Jerusalem and the Middle East region, Ethiopian monks have retained their monastic convent in what has come to be known as Deir Sultan or the Monastery of the Sultan for more than a thousand years.

Likewise, others that have their respective presences in the area at different periods include Armenian, Russian, Syrian, Egyptian and Greek Orthodox/Coptic Churches as well as the Holy See.

As one writer put it recently, “For more than 1500 years, the Church of Ethiopia survived in Jerusalem. Its survival has not, in the last resort, been dependent on politics, but on the faith of individual monks that we should look for the vindication of the Church’s presence in Jerusalem…. They are attracted in Jerusalem not by a hope for material gain or comfort, but by faith.”

Accounts of Ethiopian presence in Jerusalem invoke the Bible to establish the origin of Ethiopian presence in Jerusalem.
Accordingly, some Ethiopians refer to the story of the encounter in Jerusalem between Queen of Sheba–the ruler in Ethiopia and environs–and King Solomon, cited, for instance, in I Kings 10: 1-13.

According to the above version, Ethiopia’s presence in the region was already established about 1000 B.C. possibly through land grant to the visiting Queen, and that later transformation into Ethiopian Orthodox Christian monastery is an extension of that same property.

Others refer to the New Testament account of Acts 8: 26-40 which relates the conversion to Christianity of the envoy of Ethiopia’s Queen Candace (Hendeke) to Jerusalem in the first century A.D., thereby signaling the early phase of Ethiopia’s adoption of Christianity. This event may have led to the probable establishment of a center of worship in Jerusalem for Ethiopian pilgrims, priests, monks and nuns.


  • 2.

    Keeping these renditions as a backdrop, what can be said for certain is the following: Ethiopian monastic activities in Jerusalem were observed and reported by contemporary residents and sojourners during the early years of the Christian era.

    By the time of the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem and the region (634-644 A.D.) khalif Omar is said to have confirmed Ethiopian physical presence in Jerusalem’s Christian holy places, including the Church of St. Helena, which encompasses the Holy Sepulchre of the Lord Jesus Christ.
    His firman or directive of 636 declared “the Iberian and Abyssinian communities remain there” while also recognizing the rights of other Christian communities to make pilgrimages in the Christian holy places of Jerusalem.

    Because Jerusalem and the region around it, has been subjected to frequent invasions and changing landlords, stakes in the holy places were often part of the political whims of respective powers that be.
    Subsequently, upon their conquest of Jerusalem in 1099, the Crusaders had kicked out Orthodox/Coptic monks from the monasteries and installed Augustine monks instead. However, when in 1187 Salaheddin wrested Jerusalem from the Crusaders, he restored the presence of the Ethiopian and other Orthodox/Coptic monks in the holy places.

    When political powers were not playing havoc with their claims to the holy places, the different Christian sects would often carry on their own internecine conflicts among themselves, at times with violent results.
    Contemporary records and reports indicate that the Ethiopian presence in the holy places in Jerusalem was rather much more substantial throughout much of the period up to the 18th and 19th centuries.
  • 3.

    For example, an Italian pilgrim, Barbore Morsini, is cited as having written in 1614 that “the Chapels of St. Mary of Golgotha and of St. Paul…the grotto of David on Mount Sion and an altar at Bethlehem…” among others were in the possession of the Ethiopians.
    From the 16th to the middle of the 19th centuries, virtually the whole of the Middle East was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. When one of the Zagwe kings in Ethiopia, King Lalibela (1190-1225), had trouble maintaining unhampered contacts with the monks in Jerusalem, he decided to build a new Jerusalem in his land. In the process he left behind one of the true architectural wonders known as the Rock-hewn Churches of Lalibela.

    The Ottomans also controlled Egypt and much of the Red Sea littoral and thereby circumscribed Christian Ethiopia’s communication with the outside world, including Jerusalem.
    Besides, they had also tried but failed to subdue Ethiopia altogether. Though Ethiopia’s independent existence was continuously under duress not only from the Ottomans but also their colonial surrogate, Egypt as well as from the dervishes in the Sudan, the Ethiopian monastery somehow survived during this period. Whenever they could, Ethiopian rulers and other personages as well as church establishments sent subsidies and even bought plots of land where in time churches and residential buildings for Ethiopian pilgrims were built in and around Jerusalem. Church leaders in Jerusalem often represented the Ethiopian Orthodox Church in ecumenical councils and meetings in Florence and other fora.

    During the 16th and 17th centuries the Ottoman rulers of the region including Palestine and, of course, Jerusalem, tried to stabilize the continuing clamor and bickering among the Christian sects claiming sites in the Christian holy places. To that effect, Ottoman rulers including Sultan Selim I (1512-1520) and Suleiman “the Magnificent” (1520-1566) as well as later ones in the 19th century, issued edicts or firmans regulating and detailing by name which group of monks would be housed where and the protocol governing their respective religious ceremonies. These edicts are called firmans of the Status Quo for all Christian claimants in Jerusalem’s holy places including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which came to be called Deir Sultan or the monastery (place) of the Sultan.
    Ethiopians referred to it endearingly as Debre Sultan. Most observers of the scene in the latter part of the 19th Century as well as honest spokesmen for some of the sects attest to the fact that from time immemorial the Ethiopian monks had pride of place in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Deir Sultan). Despite their meager existence and pressures from fellow monks from other countries, the Ethiopian monks survived through the difficult periods their country was going through such as the period of feudal autarchy (1769-1855).
    Still, in every document or reference since the opening of the Christian era, Ethiopia and Ethiopian monks have been mentioned in connection with Christian holy places in Jerusalem, by all alternating landlords and powers that be in the region.
  • 4.

    As surrogates of the weakening Ottomans, the Egyptians were temporarily in control of Jerusalem (1831-1840). It was at this time, in 1838, that a plague is said to have occurred in the holy places, which in some mysterious ways of Byzantine proportions, claimed the lives of all Ethiopian monks.
    The Ethiopians at this time were ensconced in a chapel of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Deir Sultan) as well as in other locales nearby. Immediately thereafter, the Egyptian authorities gave the keys of the Church to the Egyptian Coptic monks.
    The Egyptian ruler, Ibrahim Pasha, then ordered that all thousands of very precious Ethiopian holy books and documents, including historical and ecclesiastical materials related to property deeds and rights, be burned—alleging conveniently that the plague was spawned by the Ethiopian parchments.

    Monasteries are traditionally important hubs of learning and, given its location and its opportunity for interaction with the wider family of Christendom, the Ethiopian monastery in Jerusalem was even more so than others. That is how Ethiopians lost their choice possession in Deir Sultan. By the time other monks arrived in Jerusalem, the Copts claimed their squatter’s rights, the new Ethiopian arrivals were eventually pushed off onto the open rooftop of the church, thanks largely to the machinations of the Egyptian Coptic church.

    Although efforts on behalf of Ethiopian monks in Jerusalem started in mid-19th Century with Ras Ali and Dejach Wube, it was the rise of Emperor Tewodros in 1855 in Ethiopia that put the Jerusalem monastery issue back onto international focus.
  • 5.

    When Ethiopian monks numbering a hundred or so congregated in Jerusalem at the time, the Armenians had assumed superiority in the holy places. The Anglican bishop in Jerusalem then, Bishop Samuel Gobat witnessed the unholy attitude and behavior of the Armenians and the Copts towards their fellow Christian Ethiopians who were trying to reclaim their rights to the holy places in Jerusalem.
    He wrote that the Ethiopian monks, nuns and pilgrims “were both intelligent and respectable, yet they were treated like slaves, or rather like beasts by the Copts and the Armenians combined…(the Ethiopians) could never enter their own chapel but when it pleased the Armenians to open it. …On one occasion, they could not get their chapel opened to perform funeral service for one of their members. The key to their convent being in the hands of their oppressors, they were locked up in their convent in the evening until it pleased their Coptic jailer to open it in the morning, so that in any severe attacks of illness, which are frequent there, they had no means of going out to call a physician.’’

    It was awareness of such indignities suffered by Ethiopian monks in Jerusalem that is said to have impelled Emperor Tewodros to have visions of clearing the path between his domain and Jerusalem from Turkish/Egyptian control, and establishing something more than monastic presence there. In the event, one of the issues that contributed to the clash with British colonialists that consumed his life 1868, was the quest for adequate protection of the Ethiopian monks and their monastery in Jerusalem.

    Emperor Yohannes IV (1872-1889), the priestly warrior king, used his relatively cordial relations with the British who were holding sway in the region then, to make representations on behalf of the Ethiopian monastery in Jerusalem.
    He carried on regular pen-pal communications with the monks even before he became Emperor. He sent them money, he counseled them and he always asked them to pray for him and the country, saying, “For the prayers of the righteous help and serve in all matters. By the prayers of the righteous a country is saved.”
    He used some war booty from his battles with Ottomans and their Egyptian surrogates, to buy land and started to build a church in Jerusalem. As he died fighting Sudanese/Dervish expansionists in 1889, his successor, Emperor Menelik completed the construction of the Church named Debre Gennet located on what was called “Ethiopian Street.”
    During this period more monasteries, churches and residences were also built by Empresses Tayitu, Zewditu, Menen as well as by several other personages including Afe Negus Nessibu, Dejazmach Balcha, Woizeros Amarech Walelu, Beyenech Gebru, Altayeworq.

    As of the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th Century the numbers of Ethiopian monks and nuns increased and so did overall Ethiopian pilgrimage and presence in Jerusalem.
    In 1903, Emperor Menelik put $200, 000 thalers in a (Credileone) Bank in the region and ordained that interests from that savings be used exclusively as subsidy for the sustenance of the Ethiopian monks and nuns and the upkeep of Deir Sultan. Emperor Menelik’s 6-point edict also ordained that no one be allowed to draw from the capital in whole or in part.

    Land was also purchased at various localities and a number of personalities including Empress Tayitu, and later Empress Menen, built churches there. British authorities supported a study on the history of the issue since at least the time of kalifa (Calif) Omar ((636) and correspondences and firmans and reaffirmations of Ethiopian rights in 1852, in an effort to resolve the chronic problems of conflicting claims to the holy sites in Jerusalem.

    The 1925 study concluded that ”the Abyssinian (Ethiopian ) community in Palestine ought to be considered the only possessor of the convent Deir Es Sultan at Jerusalem with the Chapels which are there and the free and exclusive use of the doors which give entrance to the convent, the free use of the keys being understood.”
    Until the Fascist invasion of Ethiopia in the 1930’s when Mussolini confiscated Ethiopian accounts and possessions everywhere, including in Jerusalem, the Ethiopian presence in Jerusalem had shown some semblance of stability and security, despite continuing intrigues by Copts, Armenians and their overlords in the region.
    The July 2002 brawl that erupted on the roof of Christianity’s most holy place between Ethiopian and Egyptian monks is the latest example of this unnecessary hostility

    For nearly two millennia now, the Ethiopian Church and its adherent monks and priests have miraculously maintained custodianship of Deir Sultan, suffering through and surviving all the struggles that have been glanced at in this writing.
  • I am so sorry for the bad things that some of those so called Copts have done to your people. Please, do not let this thing bother you. There has always been curroption in the church, from the time of the Jews worshiping the baals, to the time of St. Peter teaching christians to obey the laws of circumcision. Even King David murdered a guest in Israel for the sake of selfish desire. I do hope that you will not let this test hinder your faith but will see that the Lord does abide in the hearts of some Egyptians and that not all us Copts are bloodthirsty. I hope this testing of your faith will only lead you to great virtue. Do keep me in your prayers, brother.
  • Thank you, and bless you, brother Dumdum for your warm words. I will pray for you, for all of us! I would be glad and thankful to hear more from our brothers and sisters from Egypt.
  • Melchoir,

    The source of your story sounds to be purely biased. If I am mistaken, I shall be grateful if you could share the source of your story.  In regards to the Al Sultan Monastery, my information is that ,the bitter dispute over the Holy ground began sometime in the early 70's ,when the Ethiopian monks grabbed the opportunity to change the key locks at the monstery entrances at a time when the Coptic monks left for prayers leaving the rooftop unattended. If this info is right,the action sounds like thuggery to me. If the info is incorrect,what is the correct info?  Besides, I , personally ,am not aware of the Coptic churchs 'animosity' towards the Ethiopian Tewahdo Orthodox church.The choice of the word is misplaced and a little bit misleading.
  • Hello Hezkiel,

    By animosity, I meant the general Egyptian public. The fact that this particular contribution of mine on this forum had very little reaction shows that people are not interested in dealing with this very important current subject.

    The source of the infromation is irrelevant. Every one is free to lead his/her own investiagtion.

    Updated info from the BBC

    Unholy row threatens Holy Sepulchre

    An unholy row is threatening one of the most sacred places in Christianity - the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.

    The centuries-old site, where many Christians believe Jesus was crucified, is visited by hundreds of thousands of pilgrims and tourists every year.

    A recent survey says that part of the complex, a rooftop monastery, is in urgent need of repair, but work is being held up by a long-running dispute between two Christian sects who claim ownership of the site.

    Within the main building, dark-robed monks with long beards chant and swing incense as they conduct ceremonies in the many small chapels and shrines.

    There has been a church on this site for 1,700 years. Over the centuries it has been destroyed and rebuilt several times - but some parts are very old indeed.

    Collapse risk

    Various Christian denominations - Greek Orthodox, Armenians, Catholics, among others - have always jealously defended and protected their own particular parts of the site.
    Disputes are not uncommon, particularly over who has the authority to carry out repairs.

    For example, a wooden ladder has remained on a ledge just above the main entrance since the 19th Century - because no-one can agree who has the right to take it down.

    The latest row is potentially much more serious.

    The Deir al-Sultan monastery was built on part of the main church roof more than 1,000 years ago.

    The modest collection of small rooms has been occupied by monks from the Ethiopian Orthodox Church since 1808.

    But a recent engineering report by an Israeli institute found that the monastery and part of the roof were “not in a good condition” and that parts of the structure “could collapse, endangering human life”.

    Ownership of the monastery, however, is hotly disputed between the Ethiopians and the Egyptian Coptic Church, and the dispute is holding up much-needed repair work.
    Although the Ethiopian monks have lived there for more than 200 years, after losing many of their rights within the main church, the Copts were in overall control of the monastery.

    From a vantage point overlooking the disputed monastery, I discussed the “situation” with Father Antonias el-Orshalamy, General Secretary to the Coptic Church in Jerusalem.
    “The Ethiopians were always there as our guests, but then they wanted to take control,” says Father Antonias - referring to the night in 1970 when Coptic monks were all attending midnight prayers in the main Sepulchre church.

    With the help of Israeli police, the locks in the Deir al Sultan monastery were changed and the keys given to the Ethiopians.

    Subsequent Israeli court rulings, ordering that control be handed back to the Copts, have effectively been ignored - drawing accusations that Israel has shown political bias in favouring the Ethiopians over the (Egyptian) Copts.

    Whatever the political and religious arguments, the Ethiopians remain in control of the ancient monastery and refuse to budge.

    They will not entertain any suggestion that the Copts should have any say over repairs to the monastery and rooftop courtyard.

    In that vein, no one from the Ethiopian Church would speak to us.


    Coptic and Ethiopian monks have come to blows in the past but they are not the only ones who have allowed tensions to boil over.

    Fights between monks from different sects in the Sepulchre are not uncommon and passions run high, particularly on important holy days.

    Father Jerome Murphy O’Connor is a professor at the Ecole Biblique in Jerusalem.

    “The whole spectacle is unedifying and totally un-Christian in nature”, says the affable Irish priest, who has witnessed all sorts of church disagreements during his 40 years in the city.

    “I’m not hopeful - either for peace in the Middle East or for peace in the Holy Sepulchre,” laughs Father O’Connor.

    The impact of age and of so many pilgrims visiting the rooftop monastery and the Sepulchre Church is taking its toll.

    While the main church is said to be structurally sound, many parts of the roof in particular are in need of extensive repair.

    The Israeli government says it will pay for the work to be carried out if the Copts and Ethiopians can resolve their differences. But after decades of hostility neither side is rushing to compromise.
  • [quote author=Melchoir link=topic=7206.msg95957#msg95957 date=1224531998]
    Hello Hezkiel,

    By animosity, I meant the general Egyptian public. The fact that this particular contribution of mine on this forum had very little reaction shows that people are not interested in dealing with this very important current subject.

    The source of the infromation is irrelevant. Every one is free to lead his/her own investiagtion.


    If you ask a thief what he does for living, he is not going to tell you that he is a thief.He may probably say, he is in the business of transferring things from one place to the next.If he is your only source, you would fall in his trap. However, if you were to ask someone else who knows him, you would be told that he is a common thief.After you gathered info from both sides,then you are able to make up your mind. That means ,the source of any information you provid is relevant and important. I asked you, because I found the story to be totally biased and one-sided. People may have not responded, perhaps because you have attacked the whole Egyptian population wholesale, both Musilms and Christians who do not have anything to do with the story. The issue is between the Ethiopian Tewahdo Church and the Coptic church.You still have the chance to edit the topic of your thread.

    I still claim, the act of the Ethiopian monks constitutes thuggery. The conduct is unbecoming behaviour of a monk, to say the least. I am not here in the busines of defending one church and condemning the other. I stand for the truth.If my view is wrong, I am all ears to hear your wisdom.

    To make it easier for discussion, The BBC is reporting this:

    From a vantage point overlooking the disputed monastery, I discussed the “situation” with Father Antonias el-Orshalamy, General Secretary to the Coptic Church in Jerusalem.
    “The Ethiopians were always there as our guests, but then they wanted to take control,” says Father Antonias - referring to the night in 1970 when Coptic monks were all attending midnight prayers in the main Sepulchre church.With the help of Israeli police, the locks in the Deir al Sultan monastery were changed and the keys given to the Ethiopians.

    But because your source is faceless, this item was not mentioned in your 5 parts. Never mind. My question to you is what do you make out of the above statement? Is it true or false? If false, is Father Antonius telling deliberate lies?
  •     +++

    Dear friends,

      This is an issue not of one monastery I think. There has been real silent conflicts between these two countries over the Nile river.
    But we can act to this situation either as someone who lives on this earth like a million years or as someone who hopes to live with the Lord in heaven.
      No matter how different we r in culture or view or colour, we are one in Christ.
    Both of us are connected with Jesus. Our link is not earthly but eternal.
    Our link is Love. Our link is God.
      Never give ear to the devil or this world's media. We r children of God.
    Blessed are those who make peace for they shall be called the children of God.
      I agree with Heizkeal that tone of the topic by itself is not ok. You might be
    emotional when u were writing it. But even what u have written have really happened
    this was not the way to address it. And I don't think this is also the right place.

      At last may God be with us all with His holiest Mother, angels, saints in Mercy. 
  • The pope was just recently in Ethiopia and visitied the Ethiopian Pope...
    I have never heard anyone express any sign of animosity toward the Ethiopian church, if there is any 'animosity' in any Egyptian's heart (both muslims and christians), than it's definitly toward Israel... for evident reasons of course...
  • Dearest Brothers and Sisters,

    I brought up this subject with the sole intention to talk about the past mistakes of ours. I didn't mean to offend any of you. I see a very tough time coming. We all know what had happened in the past, and what is happening right now infront of our eyes. If we won't try to single out our errors and sinns, we will never be able to learn and move forward. Even if we don't want like to hear some negativity about ourselves, only the truth will set us free. We are all sinnful, but will remain righteous to need the forgiveness of our Lord.

    With brotherly love!
  • Brothers and Sisters,

    Politics and rulers always exploit our weakness to deceive us. The devil is behind them so that he can divide us. They are not our enemies but the devil behind them. God’s work is to build but the work of the devil is to destroy.

    Bless you all!


    Christians feud over Church of Holy Sepulcher

    By MATTI FRIEDMAN, Associated Press Writer


    Two rival monks are posted at all times in a rooftop courtyard at the site of Jesus' crucifixion: a bearded Copt in a black robe and an Ethiopian sunning himself on a wooden chair, studiously ignoring each other as they fight over the same sliver of sacred space.

    For decades, Coptic and Ethiopian Christians have been fighting over the Deir el-Sultan monastery, which sits atop a chapel at the ancient Church of the Holy Sepulcher. The monastery is little more than a cluster of dilapidated rooms and a passageway divided into two incense-filled chapels, an architectural afterthought alongside the Holy Sepulcher's better-known features.

    And yet Deir el-Sultan has become the subject of a feud that has gone far beyond the walls of Jerusalem's Old City. The Ethiopians control the site, but the Egypt-based Copts say they own it and see the Ethiopians as illegal squatters.

    The quarrel has erupted into brawls _ in 2002, when the Coptic monk moved his chair into the shade and too close to the Ethiopians, a dozen people were hurt in the ensuing melee. And today, the Ethiopians claim the fight could result in the monastery's collapse and even in damage to other parts of the church, one of the holiest sites in Christendom.

    Since the 1970s, the Israeli government has refused to allow renovations or significant repairs at the disputed monastery until the Ethiopians and the Copts come to terms. That hasn't happened, and the Ethiopian Church says the years of neglect have put the structure in danger. The Copts suggest the Ethiopians are merely trying to further cement their hold.

    The Ethiopian Church commissioned a report from an Israeli engineer backing up its claim, and in early October the Ethiopian patriarch, Archbishop Matthias, asked the Israeli government to carry out urgent repairs. The archbishop attached the engineer's assessment that the humble monastery structure could collapse _ and possibly damage the chapel below _ if steps are not taken to repair it.

    The report, compiled by Yigal Berman of the Milav engineering firm, cited "safety hazards" that "endanger the lives of the monks and the visitors," according to a report in the daily Haaretz newspaper. Yifredew Getnet, a spokesman for the Ethiopian Embassy to Israel, confirmed the report. A committee made up of embassy representatives, churchmen and lay leaders has been appointed to oversee the monastery, he said.

    Outside the monastery, Coptic monk Antonious El-Orshlemy said his church owns Deir el-Sultan, and that the Ethiopian claim that the monastery is about to collapse is false.

    "The building is very fine, and not dangerous to someone," he said.

    The most recent round of the feud began in 1970, when Ethiopian monks changed the locks while the Copts were at services on the eve of Easter and moved in.

    The Ethiopian Church has six monasteries and 70 monks in the Holy Land, according to the office of the patriarch. A handful are stationed at Deir el-Sultan. The main parts of the Holy Sepulcher are divided between the Catholics, Armenians, and Greek Orthodox.

    Three years before the Easter takeover, Israel captured the Old City from Jordan in the 1967 Mideast War and found itself in charge of the Holy Sepulcher.

    The Copts appealed to an Israeli court, which ruled that the Ethiopians should not have altered the fragile status quo at the church but said it was the government's job to decide what to do. The government decided not to take action, according to Daniel Rossing, director of the Jerusalem Center for Jewish-Christian Relations and an expert on the city's fractious religious mosaic.

    International politics likely played a role in the decision: At the time, Israel had warm ties with Ethiopia and was at war with Egypt. Later that was reversed: Communists came to power in Ethiopia and cut ties with Israel, and Egypt and Israel signed a peace agreement. But Israel still did not act, possibly because of concerns that angering Ethiopia could hamper the emigration of the country's Jewish community.

    Feuds like the one over Deir el-Sultan "don't have a solution, period," Rossing said. "The trick, then, is to do the very best job to make things as livable as possible, within the limitations of never being able to solve these issues."

    Israel's interior minister, Meir Sheetrit, now plans to mediate the dispute, and the government will help renovate the site as soon as the sides can agree on a course of action, said spokesman Ilan Marciano. But with each side entirely rejecting the other's claim to the monastery, it is unclear if an agreement is possible.

    The feud is only one of a bewildering array of rivalries among churchmen in the Holy Sepulcher, where each group remains on guard against any encroachment onto their turf. Fights have flared over issues such as who is allowed to sweep which steps, and Israeli police occasionally intervene.

    The Israeli government has long wanted to build a fire exit in the church, which regularly fills with thousands of pilgrims and has only one main door, but the plan is on hold because the sects cannot agree where the exit will be built. In another example, a ladder placed on a ledge over the entrance sometime in the 19th century has remained there ever since because of a dispute over who has the authority to take it down.
  • Animosity is the opposite of brotherhood, love and understanding.
    May be you meant some rivalry... perhaps like benign jealousy between friends?
    Devotion also means some kind of jealousy may occur.

    Do we each want to possess Holy Sites only for ourselves alone?
    They should be entrusted to whom can currently practically maintain them.

    But there are probably political reasons here: how can you fully trust non Christians to justly solve or even honestly care about such deeply internal Christian matters?
    It's tricky right? I think the Church leaders will find nice solutions with time.

    There was a sign in the sky when HH Pope Shenouda III visited Ethiopia:
    a small clip with the recorded sign.

Sign In or Register to comment.